Andrew Johnson : アンドリュー・ジョンソン

Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875) was the 17th President of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869. Johnson became president as he was vice president at the time of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. A Democrat who ran with Lincoln on the National Union ticket, Johnson came to office as the Civil War concluded. The new president favored quick restoration of the seceded states to the Union. His plans did not give protection to the former slaves, and he came into conflict with the Republican-dominated Congress, culminating in his impeachment by the House of Representatives. He was acquitted in the Senate by one vote.

Johnson was born in poverty in Raleigh, North Carolina and never attended school. Apprenticed as a tailor, he worked in several frontier towns before settling in Greeneville, Tennessee. He served as alderman and mayor there before being elected to the Tennessee House of Representatives in 1835. After brief service in the Tennessee Senate, Johnson was elected to the federal House of Representatives in 1843, where he served five two-year terms. He became Governor of Tennessee for four years, and was elected by the legislature to the U.S. Senate in 1857. In his congressional service, he sought passage of the Homestead Bill, which was enacted soon after he left his Senate seat in 1862. As Southern slave states, including Tennessee, seceded to form the Confederate States of America, Johnson remained firmly with the Union. He was the only sitting senator from a Confederate state who did not resign his seat upon learning of his state’s secession. In 1862, Lincoln appointed him as military governor of Tennessee after most of it had been retaken. In 1864, Johnson, as a War Democrat and Southern Unionist, was a logical choice as running mate for Lincoln, who wished to send a message of national unity in his re-election campaign; their ticket easily won. When Johnson was sworn in as vice president in March 1865, he gave a rambling speech, after which he secluded himself to avoid public ridicule. Six weeks later, the assassination of Lincoln made him president.

Johnson implemented his own form of Presidential Reconstruction – a series of proclamations directing the seceded states to hold conventions and elections to re-form their civil governments. When Southern states returned many of their old leaders, and passed Black Codes to deprive the freedmen of many civil liberties, Congressional Republicans refused to seat legislators from those states and advanced legislation to overrule the Southern actions. Johnson vetoed their bills, and Congressional Republicans overrode him, setting a pattern for the remainder of his presidency. Johnson opposed the Fourteenth Amendment, which gave citizenship to former slaves. In 1866, Johnson went on an unprecedented national tour promoting his executive policies, seeking to destroy his Republican opponents. As the conflict between the branches of government grew, Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act, restricting Johnson’s ability to fire Cabinet officials. When he persisted in trying to dismiss Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, he was impeached by the House of Representatives, and narrowly avoided conviction in the Senate and removal from office. After failing to win the 1868 Democratic presidential nomination, Johnson left office in 1869.

Returning to Tennessee after his presidency, Johnson sought political vindication, and gained it in his eyes when he was elected to the Senate again in 1875, making Johnson the only former president to serve in the Senate. He died just months into his term. While some admire Johnson’s strict constitutionalism, his strong opposition to federally guaranteed rights for African Americans is widely criticized. He is regarded by many historians as one of the worst presidents in American history.

アンドリュー・ジョンソン(1808年12月29日 – 1875年7月31日)はアメリカ合衆国の第16代副大統領および第17代大統領。




1808年12月29日にジェイコブ・ジョンソン(1778年 – 1812年)およびメアリー・マクドノー(1783年 – 1856年)の息子としてノースカロライナ州ローリーで生まれた。父親のジェイコブはアンドリューが3歳頃に死去し、一家は貧困の中に残された。母親は家計を支えるため機織りの仕事を行い、後に再婚した。母親はアンドリューが10歳か14歳の時に洋服屋へ奉公に行かせた。1820年代に彼はサウスカロライナ州ローレンスの仕立屋で働いた。貧しい家庭のためジョンソンは正式の教育を受けず、独学で読み書きを学んだ。








  • アンドリュー・ジョンソン (1865 – 1869)


  • 不在


  • ウィリアム・スワード (1865 – 1869)


  • ヒュー・マカロック (1865 – 1869)


  • エドウィン・スタントン (1865 – 1868)
  • ジョン・マカリスター・スコフィールド (1868 – 1869)


  • ジェイムズ・スピード (1865 – 1866)
  • ヘンリー・スタンベリー (1866 – 1868)
  • ウィリアム・マクスウェル・エヴァーツ (1868 – 1869)


  • ウィリアム・デニソン (1865 – 1866)
  • アレクサンダー・ウィリアムズ・ランドール (1866 – 1869)


  • ギデオン・ウェルズ (1865 – 1869)


  • ジョン・パーマー・アッシャー (1865)
  • ジェイムズ・ハーラン (1865 – 1866)
  • オーヴィル・ヒックマン・ブラウニング (1866 – 1869)


  • ホーレス・ケプロン (1867 – 1869)


連邦政府による南部再建(レコンストラクション)において、南部人に寛大な政策をとったとみられ、そのせいで共和党急進派のメンバーと馬が合わず、政敵である陸軍長官スタントンを罷免したことからThe Tenure Law(政府高官が在職中は罷免を免れる法律)を破ったという口実で弾劾裁判にかけられた。ジョンソンに対する弾劾の訴追は1868年2月24日に下院を通過した。弾劾法廷は同年3月5日に上院で組織された。上院での弾劾決議の採決では賛成35票・反対19票(賛成率が64.8%)となった。弾劾の成立には三分の二以上、つまり36票以上の賛成が必要だが、1票足りなかった。そのため、辛うじてジョンソンは大統領の座を保つことができた。しかし、この一連の騒動により議会とジョンソンの対立の溝は決定的なものになり、政権のレームダック化は免れなかった。1869年3月4日に任期満了に伴い退任した。




Comments are closed, but trackbacks and pingbacks are open.