California Child Actor’s Bill : クーガン法

The California Child Actor’s Bill (also known as Coogan Act or Coogan Bill) is a law applicable to child performers, designed to safeguard a portion of their earnings for when they enter adulthood.

The original Bill was passed in 1939 by the State of California in response to the plight of Jackie Coogan, who earned millions of dollars as a successful child actor only to discover, upon reaching adulthood, that his parents had spent almost all of his money. Since then, it has been revised a few times, most recently on January 1, 2004. As it stands, money earned and accumulated under a contract under the code remains the sole legal property of the minor child.

The current version of the law is codified in sections 6750–53 of the California Family Code and section 1700.37 of the California Labor Code. The law provides that any of the parties may petition a court to approve an entertainment contract, and if the court does so, somewhat different rules apply. Most importantly, the child cannot escape their own responsibilities under the contract by disaffirming it, which a child normally has the power to do.

Later revisions extended the scope of minors’ entertainment contracts that the court can approve to include contracts pursuant to which a minor renders services as an “actor, actress, dancer, musician, comedian, singer, or other performer or entertainer, or as a writer, director, producer, production executive, choreographer, composer, conductor, or designer.” Under the current law, the court may also approve contracts that involve the transfer of intellectual property.

This law requires a child actor’s employer to set aside 15% of the earnings in a trust (often called a Coogan Account), and codifies issues such as schooling, work hours and time off.

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クーガン法とは子役が稼いだ収益の一部を子役自身のために残すことを義務つけたアメリカ合衆国の法律(カリフォルニア州法)。英語表記は「California Child Actor’s Bill」。

概要

1921年にチャップリンの映画「キッド」で起用された子役のジャッキー・クーガン(1921年当時7歳)の稼いだ、約300万ドルの資産を両親が全て浪費したことが発覚し、親と訴訟沙汰になったことが契機となって1939年に制定された。

未成年者が稼ぐ収益から、未成年者の生活・世話・維持・教育・訓練のための費用などの額を確保しておくことや、出演料の15%をその子役が成人するまで積み立てることが規定されている。

他にも、学校教育の時間の確保や労働時間制限も規定している。例えば、生後15日未満の乳児を出演させてはならないことと、生後15日から生後6ヶ月の乳児の出演は1日2時間までに制限されている。そのため、ハリウッドでは映画やテレビドラマの出演に双子を起用することが多い。双子が交互に入れ替わって演じることで、合計4時間(1人当たり2時間)となり、撮影時間と出演料を稼ぐことができるためである。『フルハウス』のオルセン姉妹はその典型的な例であった。

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