The Arab Spring (Arabic: الربيع العربي‎ ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (Arabic: الثورات العربية‎ aṯ-‘awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution. The effects of the Tunisian Revolution spread strongly to five other countries: Libya, Egypt, Yemen, Syria and Bahrain, where either the regime was toppled or majorRead More →

The Haitian Revolution (French: Révolution haïtienne) was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign nation of Haiti. It began on 22 August 1791 at 22:00, and ended in 1804 with the former colony’s independence. It involved blacks, mulattoes, French,Read More →

The Mexican Revolution (Spanish: Revolución Mexicana) was a major armed struggle, c. 1910–1920, that radically transformed Mexican culture and government. Although recent research has focused on local and regional aspects of the Revolution, it was a “genuinely national revolution”. Its outbreak in 1910 resulted from the failure of the 35-year-long regimeRead More →

The Velvet Revolution (Czech: sametová revoluce) or Gentle Revolution (Slovak: nežná revolúcia) was a non-violent transition of power in what was then Czechoslovakia, occurring from 17 November to 29 December 1989. Popular demonstrations against the one-party government of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia combined students and older dissidents. The resultRead More →

The White Revolution (Persian: انقلاب سفید‎ Enqelāb-e Sefid) or the Shah and People Revolution (Persian: انقلاب شاه و مردم‎ Enqelāb-e Shāh va Mardom) was a far-reaching series of reforms in Iran launched in 1963 by Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and lasted until 1978. Mohammad Reza Shah’s reform program was builtRead More →

The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union. The Russian Empire collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the firstRead More →

The Nicaraguan Revolution (Spanish: Revolución Nicaragüense or Revolución Popular Sandinista) encompassed the rising opposition to the Somoza dictatorship in the 1960s and 1970s, the campaign led by the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) to violently oust the dictatorship in 1978–79, the subsequent efforts of the FSLN to govern Nicaragua fromRead More →

The Iranian Revolution (Persian: انقلاب ایران‎, translit. Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution) refers to events involving the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty under Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who was supported by the United States, and eventual replacement of 2,500 years of continuous PersianRead More →

The Cuban Revolution was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro‘s 26th of July Movement and its allies against the authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista. The revolution began in July 1953, and continued sporadically until the rebels finally ousted Batista on January 1, 1959, replacing his government withRead More →