Dollar diplomacy of the United States—particularly during President William Howard Taft‘s term— was a form of American foreign policy to further its aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries. Historian Thomas A. Bailey argues that dollar diplomacyRead More →

Ochlocracy (Greek: ὀχλοκρατία, okhlokratía; Latin: ochlocratia), mobocracy or mob rule is the rule of government by mob or a mass of people, or, the intimidation of legitimate authorities. As a pejorative for majoritarianism, it is akin to the Latin phrase mobile vulgus meaning “the fickle crowd”, from which the English term “mob” originally was derived in the 1680s. Ochlocracy is synonymous in meaning and usage to the modern, informalRead More →

Unitarianism (from Latin unitas “unity, oneness”, from unus “one”) is a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one entity, as opposed to the Trinity (tri- from Latin tres “three”) which defines God as three persons in one being; the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Unitarian Christians, therefore, believe that Jesus was inspired by God in his moral teachings, and he is a savior, but he was not a deity or GodRead More →

New Right is a descriptive term for various right-wing political groups or policies in different countries. It has also been used to describe the emergence of Eastern European parties after the collapse of the Soviet Union and Soviet-style communism. New Right by country Australia In Australia, “the New Right” refers to a late 1970s/1980s onward movementRead More →

“No taxation without representation” is a slogan originating during the 1700s that summarized a primary grievance of the American colonists in the Thirteen Colonies, which was one of the major causes of the American Revolution. In short, many in those colonies believed that, as they were not directly represented in the distant British Parliament, any laws it passed affecting the colonistsRead More →

Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable. The English biologist Thomas Henry Huxley coined the word agnostic in 1869, and said “It simply means that a man shall not say he knows or believes that which he has no scientific grounds for professing to know or believe.” Earlier thinkers,Read More →

Nuclear power is a major source of energy in France, with a 40% share of energy consumption in 2015. Nuclear power is the largest source of electricity in the country, with a generation of 416.8 TWh, or 76.3% of the country’s total production of 546 TWh, the highest percentage in the world.Read More →

Liberal conservatism is a political ideology combining conservative policies with liberal stances, especially on ethical and social issues, or a brand of political conservatism strongly influenced by liberalism. Liberal conservatism incorporates the classical liberal view of minimal government intervention in the economy, according to which individuals should be free to participate in the market and generate wealth without governmentRead More →

Sexual abstinence or sexual restraint is the practice of refraining from some or all aspects of sexual activity for medical, psychological, legal, social, financial, philosophical, moral, or religious reasons. Asexuality is distinct from sexual abstinence; and celibacy is sexual abstinence generally motivated by factors such as an individual’s personal or religious beliefs. Sexual abstinence before marriage is required in some societiesRead More →

“Just Say No” was an advertising campaign, part of the U.S. “War on Drugs“, prevalent during the 1980s and early 1990s, to discourage children from engaging in illegal recreational drug use by offering various ways of saying no. The slogan was created and championed by First Lady Nancy Reagan during her husband‘s presidency. Initiation The campaign emerged from a substance abuseRead More →

Family values, sometimes referred to as familial values, are traditional or cultural values that pertain to the family’s structure, function, roles, beliefs, attitudes, and ideals. In the social sciences and U.S. political discourse, the term “traditional family” refers to a nuclear family − a child-rearing environment composed of a breadwinning father, a homemaking mother, and their biological children; sociologists formerlyRead More →

Christian right or religious right is a term used mainly in the United States to label conservative Christian political factions that are characterized by their strong support of socially conservative policies. Christian conservatives principally seek to apply their understanding of the teachings of Christianity to politics and to public policyRead More →

Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity). One manifestation of secularism is asserting the right to be free from religious rule and teachings, or, in a state declared to be neutral on matters of belief, from theRead More →

Non-interventionism or non-intervention is a foreign policy that holds that political rulers should avoid alliances with other nations but still retain diplomacy and avoid all wars unless related to direct self-defense. An original, more formal definition is that non-interventionism is a policy characterized by the absence of “interference by a state or states in the external affairs of another state without itsRead More →

Social conservatism is the belief that society is built upon a fragile network of relationships which need to be upheld through duty, traditional values and established institutions. This can include moral issues. Social conservatism is generally skeptical of social change, and believes in maintaining the status quo concerning social issues such as family life, sexual relations andRead More →

“Don’t ask, don’t tell” (DADT) was the official United States policy on military service by gays, bisexuals, and lesbians, instituted by the Clinton Administration on February 28, 1994, when Department of Defense Directive 1304.26 issued on December 21, 1993, took effect, lasting until September 20, 2011. The policy prohibited militaryRead More →

Double V campaign was a slogan and drive to promote the fight for democracy abroad and within the United States for African Americans during World War II. The Double V refers to the “V for victory” sign prominently displayed by countries fighting “for victory over aggression, slavery, and tyranny,” butRead More →

The economic policies of Bill Clinton, referred to by some as Clintonomics (a portmanteau of “Clinton” and “economics”), encapsulates the economic policies of United States President Bill Clinton that were implemented during his presidency, which lasted from January 1993–January 2001. President Clinton oversaw a very robust economy during his tenure.Read More →

In politics, populism refers to a range of approaches which emphasize the role of “the people” and often juxtapose this group against “the elite”. There is no single definition of the term, which developed in the 19th century and has been used to mean various different things since that time.Read More →

Japanese militarism (日本軍國主義 or 日本軍国主義 Nihon gunkoku shugi) refers to the ideology in the Empire of Japan that militarism should dominate the political and social life of the nation, and that the strength of the military is equal to the strength of a nation. History Rise of militarism The militaryRead More →