Civil Rights Act of 1964 : 1964年公民権法

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub.L. 88–352, 78 Stat. 241, enacted July 2, 1964) is a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. It prohibited unequal application of voter registration requirements, racial segregation in schools, employment, and public accommodations.

Powers given to enforce the act were initially weak, but were supplemented during later years. Congress asserted its authority to legislate under several different parts of the United States Constitution, principally its power to regulate interstate commerce under Article One (section 8), its duty to guarantee all citizens equal protection of the laws under the Fourteenth Amendment and its duty to protect voting rights under the Fifteenth Amendment. The Act was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson on July 2, 1964, at the White House.

The bill was called for by President John F. Kennedy in his Report to the American People on Civil Rights of June 11, 1963, in which he asked for legislation “giving all Americans the right to be served in facilities which are open to the public—hotels, restaurants, theaters, retail stores, and similar establishments”, as well as “greater protection for the right to vote.” Kennedy delivered this speech following the immediate aftermath of the Birmingham campaign and the growing number of demonstrations and protests throughout the southern United States. Kennedy was moved to action following the elevated racial tensions and wave of black riots in the spring 1963.

Emulating the Civil Rights Act of 1875, Kennedy‘s civil rights bill included provisions to ban discrimination in public accommodations, and to enable the U.S. Attorney General to join in lawsuits against state governments which operated segregated school systems, among other provisions. However, it did not include a number of provisions deemed essential by civil rights leaders including protection against police brutality, ending discrimination in private employment, or granting the Justice Department power to initiate desegregation or job discrimination lawsuits.

アメリカ合衆国における1964年公民権法は人種差別を禁ずる法律であり、公民権運動を背景として1964年に合衆国連邦議会で成立した。同法は11条からなり、職場、公共施設、連邦から助成金を得る機関、選挙人登録における差別を禁じ、分離教育を禁じている。

黒人が選挙権など平等な権利を求める公民権運動が活発化し負傷者を伴う暴動が南部で発生するなどの事態を受け、大統領ジョン・F・ケネディが1963年2月に強力な新公民権法を制定するよう議会に求めた。下院を通過した後、上院では500回以上の修正案が提出され、当時の最長記録を更新するフィリバスターなどの妨害を南部議員から受けたが、ケネディに代わって就任した大統領リンドン・ジョンソンがこの実現を推進し、民主党・共和党の北部議員による超党派の協力により成立に至った。

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