Dependency theory : 従属理論

Dependency theory is the notion that resources flow from a “periphery” of poor and underdeveloped states to a “core” of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former. It is a central contention of dependency theory that poor states are impoverished and rich ones enriched by the way poor states are integrated into the “world system”.

The theory arose as a reaction to modernization theory, an earlier theory of development which held that all societies progress through similar stages of development, that today’s underdeveloped areas are thus in a similar situation to that of today’s developed areas at some time in the past, and that, therefore, the task of helping the underdeveloped areas out of poverty is to accelerate them along this supposed common path of development, by various means such as investment, technology transfers, and closer integration into the world market. Dependency theory rejected this view, arguing that underdeveloped countries are not merely primitive versions of developed countries, but have unique features and structures of their own; and, importantly, are in the situation of being the weaker members in a world market economy.

Dependency theory no longer has many proponents as an overall theory, but some writers have argued for its continuing relevance as a conceptual orientation to the global division of wealth.

従属理論とは、経済学・社会学において提起された学説。ラウル・プレビッシュ(Raul Prebisch)らの構造学派によって想起され、政治的発展を遂げ、提唱された。




ポール・A・バランのPolotical Economy of Growthの問題提起を受けて理論を提唱した代表的な論者がドイツ出身の経済学者アンドレ・グンダー・フランクであり、これを批判したのがアルゼンチンの政治学者エルネスト・ラクラウである。また、エジプトの経済学者サミール・アミン、ブラジルの経済学者テオトニオ・ドス・サントス(Theotonio Dos Santos)などによる学説がある。ブラジルの社会学者フェルナンド・エンリケ・カルドーゾ(のちブラジル大統領)は、フランクの学説をさらに洗練させた。

この主張の基底にある国際的不等価交換論を展開したのはアルジリ・エマニュエル(Arghiri Emmanuel)である。彼は、不等価交換を2つに区別する。

  • 剰余価値率は等しいが資本の有機的構成が異なる第1次の不均等
  • 賃金格差があり剰余価値率が異なる不均等



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