E. H. Harriman : エドワード・ヘンリー・ハリマン

Edward HenryNedHarriman (February 20, 1848 – September 9, 1909) was an American railroad executive.

Early life

Harriman was born on February 20, 1848 in Hempstead, New York, the son of Orlando Harriman, Sr., an Episcopal clergyman, and Cornelia Neilson. He had a brother, Orlando Harriman, Jr. His great-grandfather, William Harriman, had emigrated from England in 1795 and engaged successfully in trading and commercial pursuits.

As a young boy, Harriman spent a summer working at the Greenwood Iron Furnace in the area owned by the Robert Parker Parrott family that would become Harriman State Park. He quit school at age 14 to take a job as an errand boy on Wall Street in New York City. His uncle Oliver Harriman had earlier established a career there. By age 22, he was a member of the New York Stock Exchange.

Career

Harriman’s father-in-law was president of the Ogdensburg and Lake Champlain Railroad Company, which aroused Harriman’s interest in upstate New York transportation. In 1881, Harriman acquired the small, broken-down Lake Ontario Southern Railroad. He renamed it the Sodus Bay & Southern, reorganized it, and sold it to the Pennsylvania Railroad at a considerable profit. This was the start of his career as a rebuilder of bankrupt railroads.

Harriman was nearly 50 years old when in 1897 he became a director of the Union Pacific Railroad. By May 1898, he was chairman of the executive committee, and from that time until his death, his word was the law on the Union Pacific system. In 1903, he assumed the office of president of the company. From 1901 to 1909, Harriman was also the President of the Southern Pacific Railroad. The vision of a unified UP/SP railroad was planted with Harriman. (The UP and SP were reunited on September 11, 1996, a month after the Surface Transportation Board had approved their merger.)

At the time of his death Harriman controlled the Union Pacific, the Southern Pacific, the Saint Joseph and Grand Island, the Illinois Central, the Central of Georgia, the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, and the Wells Fargo Express Company. Estimates of his estate ranged from $150 million to $200 million. It was left entirely to his wife.

The Harriman Alaska Expedition

In 1899, Harriman sponsored and accompanied a scientific expedition to catalog the flora and fauna of the Alaska coastline. Many prominent scientists and naturalists went on the expedition, aboard the luxuriously refitted 250-foot (76 m) steamer George W. Elder.

Interest in ju-jitsu

Harriman became interested in ju-jitsu after his two-month visit to Japan in 1905. When he returned to America, he brought with him a troupe of six Japanese ju-jitsu wrestlers, including the prominent judokas Tsunejiro Tomita and Mitsuyo Maeda. Among many performances, the troupe gave an exhibition that drew six hundred spectators in the Columbia University gymnasium on February 7, 1905.

Personal life

In 1879, Harriman married Mary Williamson Averell, daughter of William J. Averell, a banker in Ogdensburg, New York. Together they had:

  • Mary Harriman (1881–1934), who married Charles Cary Rumsey (1879–1922), a sculptor, in 1910.
  • Henry Neilson Harriman (1883–1888), who died young.
  • Cornelia Harriman (1884–1966), who married Robert Livingston Gerry, Sr. (1877–1957) in 1908.
  • Carol Averell Harriman (1889–1948), who married Richard Penn Smith, Jr. (1893–1929) in 1917. After his death, she married W. Plunket Stewart, who had previously been married and divorced from Elsie Cassatt, the daughter of Alexander Cassatt, in 1930.
  • William Averell Harriman (1891-1986), the Secretary of Commerce under President Harry S. Truman, the 48th Governor of New York, the U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union and U.S. Ambassador to Britain. He was married three times: First to Kitty Lanier Lawrance (from 1915 until their divorce in 1929), then Marie Norton Whitney (from 1930 until her death in 1970), then lastly Pamela Beryl Digby Churchill Hayward (from 1971 until his death in 1986)
  • Edward Roland Noel Harriman (1895–1978), who married Gladys Fries (1896–1983) in 1917.

Harriman died on September 9, 1909 at his home, Arden, at 1:30 p.m. at age 61. Naturalist John Muir, who had joined him on the 1899 Alaska Expedition, wrote in his eulogy of Harriman, “In almost every way, he was a man to admire.” Harriman was buried at the St. John’s Episcopal Church cemetery in the hamlet of Arden, near his estate.

Harriman estate

In 1885, Harriman acquired “Arden”, the 7,863-acre (31.82 km2) Parrott family estate in the Ramapo Highlands near Tuxedo, New York, for $52,500. The property had been a source of charcoal for the Parrott Brothers Iron Works. Over the next several years he purchased almost 40 different nearby parcels of land, adding 20,000 acres (81 km2), and connected all of them with 40 miles (64 km) of bridle paths. His 100,000 sq ft (9,300 m2) residence, Arden House, was completed only seven months before he died.

In the early 1900s, his sons W. Averell Harriman and E. Roland Harriman hired landscape architect Arthur P. Kroll to landscape many acres. In 1910, his widow donated 10,000 acres (40 km2) to the state of New York for Harriman State Park. The estate was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1966. In 1977, they gave the State of Idaho another Harriman State Park on several conditions. One of these was that the waters of the Henry’s Fork, which flowed through the property, had to be managed for catch-and-release fly fishing. To this day it is considered one of the greatest fly fishing streams in North America.

Legacy

Award

  • In 1913, his widow created the E. H. Harriman Award to recognize outstanding achievements in railway safety. The award has been presented on an annual basis since then.

Namesakes

  • The Union Pacific Harriman Dispatch Center in Omaha, Nebraska is named for Edward H. Harriman.
  • Harriman Glacier in Alaska’s Chugach National Forest, located in Whittier, Alaska, was named for him by the Harriman Alaska Expedition
  • Two post offices in Oregon were named for Harriman, including the one at Rocky Point, where he maintained a summer camp for several years.
  • Financial and business publisher Harriman House is named after Harriman.
  • The city of Sparks, Nevada was known as Harriman during its early existence.

Places built using funds donated from his sponsorship or estate

  • Harriman founded the Tompkins Square Boys’ Club, now known as The Boys’ Club of New York. The original club, founded in 1876, was located in the rented basement of the Wilson School in Manhattan’s Lower East Side, and began with three boys. Harriman’s idea for the club was to provide a place “for the boys, so as to get them off the streets and teach them better manners.” By 1901, the club had outgrown its space. Harriman purchased several lots on 10th and Avenue A, and a five-story clubhouse was completed in 1901.
  • Inheritance taxes from Harriman’s estate, in the amount of $798,546 paid by his widow on March 1, 1911, to the State of Utah, helped fund the construction of the state’s capital.
  • Harriman State Park in Tuxedo, NY

Notable quotations

“Much good work is lost for the lack of a little more.”

“Cooperation means ‘Do as I say, and do it damn quick.'”

In popular culture

  • Harriman is mentioned in the movie Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969), as the commercial baron whose agents become the title characters’ nemeses. In the film’s second train robbery, a railroad employee ascribes his refusal to cooperate with the robbery to his obligations to Harriman personally, and one of Butch and Sundance’s intimates describes Harriman’s hiring of famed outlaw-hunters to track down the gang’s leaders.
  • In the movie The Wild Bunch (1969), a railroad official named “Harrigan” takes the same strategy.

エドワード・ヘンリー・ハリマン(1848年2月20日 – 1909年9月9日)はアメリカ合衆国の実業家。W・アヴェレル・ハリマンの父。

生涯

青年期

1848年、聖公会牧師オーランド・ハリマンとコーネリア・ニールソンの次男としてニューヨーク・ヘンプステッドに生まれる。曽祖父ウィリアム・ハリマンは1795年にイングランドから移住し、商取引に携わった。

14歳で学校を卒業した後、叔父オリバー・ハリマンが勤めていた伝手を頼りウォール街で働き始める。22歳の時にニューヨーク証券取引所の会員となる。

1879年、ハリマンはニューヨークの銀行家ウィリアム・J・アヴェレルの娘メアリー・ウィリアムソン・アヴェレルと結婚する。

実業家

アヴェレールはシャンプレーン湖にある鉄道会社の社長も務めており、ハリマンは彼の影響を受け鉄道に関心を抱くようになる。1881年、ハリマンはオンタリオ湖にある破産した鉄道会社を買収し、会社を再建した後にペンシルバニア鉄道へ権利を売却し莫大な利益を得た。

1897年、ユニオン・パシフィック鉄道の執行委員長に就任し、1898年5月まで在任した。また、この頃に会社の主導権を確立し、死去するまで会社に影響力を持ち続けた。

1899年、アラスカ州沿岸の動植物の研究採取を試みる科学者を後援し、自社の「ジョージ・W・エルダー」号を科学者たちに提供している。

1903年、社長に就任。また、1901年にはサザン・パシフィック鉄道を買収し、同社の社長に就任。ハリマンはユニオン・パシフィック鉄道とサザン・パシフィック鉄道の統合を目指すが、死後の1913年に合衆国最高裁判所により経営権を分離されてしまう。最終的に統合が実現するのは1996年になってからのことである。

死去

1909年9月9日、ニューヨーク・アーデンの自宅で死去し、アーデンにある聖ジョーンズ教会に埋葬された。ハリマンの死去に際し、1899年のアラスカ調査に参加したジョン・ミューアは「ほぼ全てにおいて、彼は称賛すべき人物だった」と賛辞を贈った。

ロシア帝国及びアジアでの活動

日本国との関係

ニューヨーク金融界の覇者と言われたジェイコブ・シフと共に、日露戦争中には日本の戦時公債500万ドル分を引き受けた。

著名な鉄道ビシネス家であったハリマンは、ポーツマス条約締結の前後に南満州鉄道の買収を目的として2回訪日している。1905年、ハリマン家族と同行者一行は8月10日にニューヨークを出発、サンフランシスコを経由し、締結前の同月31日に横浜港に到着した。横浜に到着したハリマン一行は、横浜正金銀行など銀行関係者が設けた歓迎の晩餐会に出席、後に日本鉄道株式会社の特別列車で日光へ旅行し、明治天皇に拝謁するなど日本側から敬意あるもてなしを受けた。

また、訪日中は東京市赤坂の米国公使館を介して、南満州鉄道の買収及び米国資本投下を桂内閣や伊藤博文など日本の政治家に働きかけた。南満州鉄道の買収は、東支鉄道やシベリア鉄道に関するロシア帝国との折衝に良い影響をもたらすとして、当鉄道の買収を日本政府に打診。桂太郎をはじめとする一部の政治家は、日露戦争後の戦費の負債から興味を示し、具体案の提示をハリマンに求めた。

これに手応えを感じたハリマンは具体案作成のために南満州鉄道の視察が必要であるとして、同年9月中旬に日本を離れて大韓帝国と清国北部へ渡り、南満州鉄道を視察した。同年10月9日に改めて訪日して再び東京へ戻ると、桂内閣に南満州鉄道に関する協定を提案した。桂内閣に求めた協定は、南満州鉄道及び大連など近辺の付随施設の均等な代表権利と利益の折半であった。また、日本の管理下に置いて法律を適用し、鉄道敷設周辺の地において戦闘や戦乱が発生した場合は、日本側が対処及び安全を保証することなどの要望も含まれていた。協定条件として約1億円という破格の財政援助を持ちかけて、南満州鉄道の共同経営を希望する内容であった。

この協定に桂内閣では、外資が急務としてハリマンの協定に賛同する意見と、ハリマンと入れ替わるように訪米していた小村外務大臣の帰国後まで待ち、小村からのポーツマス条約についての詳細報告後に判断したいという意見に分派したことから、ハリマンが米国へ向けて帰国出発する10月12日には調印に至らず、ハリマンの求めで非公式な覚書を交わすのみとなった。同年10月15日の小村外相帰国後に、桂内閣内で講和条約を踏まえて同案件が検討されたが、講和条約第6条に影響する内容が含まれることが判明したことから、ハリマンの買収案は成功しなかった。

日本滞在中に柔術に関心を抱くようになり、ハリマンは柔道家の富田常次郎・前田光世や6つの柔術・力士団体と共に帰国し、2月7日にはコロンビア大学で公演を開き600人の観客を集めた。

Comments are closed, but trackbacks and pingbacks are open.