Far Eastern Commission : 極東委員会

It was agreed at the Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers, and made public in communique issued at the end of the conference on December 27, 1945 that the Far Eastern Advisory Commission (FEAC) would become the Far Eastern Commission (FEC), it would be based in Washington, and would oversee the Allied Council for Japan. As agreed in the communique the FEC and the Council were dismantled following the Japanese Peace Treaty of September 8, 1951.

The arrangement of commission overseeing a council was similar to those that the Allies had put in place for overseeing the defeated Axis powers in Europe. It was a mirror image of those Axis countries, like Hungary, which fell to the Soviet Union and were occupied by the Red Army alone, Japan having fallen to the United States and occupied by the U.S. Army, the United States was given the dominant position on the Tokyo-based Allied Council for Japan. The change in name of the FEAC to FEC was significant because as the U.S. Secretary of State James F. Byrnes reported after the Conference “As early as August 9 we invited the Soviet Union, Great Britain, and China to join with us in carrying out the objectives of the Potsdam Declaration and the Terms of Surrender for Japan. The Far Eastern Advisory Commission was established in October, but Great Britain had reservations regarding its advisory character, and the Soviet Union requested a decision regarding control machinery in Tokyo before joining the work of the Commission“.



ポツダム宣言受諾と玉音放送の後、日本が事実上アメリカ合衆国(米、米国)による単独占領下に置かれる中、1945年8月22日、米国はイギリス(英)・ソビエト連邦(ソ)・中華民国(中)の3か国に対して、降伏文書により日本が負う義務の履行に関する施策の策定等について各国政府に勧告を行う機関極東諮問委員会(Far Eastern Advisory Commission ; FEAC)の設置を提案した。しかし、当初ソ中賛成・英反対、のち英中賛成・ソ反対となって、機能を果たさないながらも同年10月以降ソビエト連邦欠席のまま協議が重ねられた。



極東委員会の任務は「極東委員会及聨合国対日理事会付託条項」の「甲 極東委員会」項において、

  • 日本国が遂行すべき義務の基準作成および審議
  • 軍事行動の遂行や領土調整に関して勧告することなかるべし
  • 連合国軍最高司令官の占領軍に対する指揮と日本における管理機構の尊重



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