Great Recession : グレート・リセッション

The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s. The scale and timing of the recession varied from country to country. In terms of overall impact, the International Monetary Fund concluded that it was the worst global recession since the Great Depression in the 1930s. The causes of the recession largely originated in the United States, particularly the real-estate market, though policies of other nations contributed as well. According to the U.S. National Bureau of Economic Research (the official arbiter of U.S. recessions) the recession, as experienced in that country, began in December 2007 and ended in June 2009, thus extending over 19 months. The Great Recession was related to the financial crisis of 2007–08 and U.S. subprime mortgage crisis of 2007–09. The Great Recession resulted in the scarcity of valuable assets in the market economy and the collapse of the financial sector (banks) in the world economy. The banks were then bailed out by the U.S. government.

The recession was not felt evenly around the world. Whereas most of the world’s developed economies, particularly in North America and Europe, fell into a definitive recession, many of the newer developed economies suffered far less impact, particularly China and India whose economies grew substantially during this period.

グレート・リセッションは、2000年代後半から2010年代初頭までの間に世界市場で観察された大規模な経済的衰退の時期を指す。景気後退の規模や時期は国ごとに異なる。全世界への影響という点から、国際通貨基金は、第二次世界大戦以来最悪の大規模景気後退局面であると結論付けた。全米経済研究所によると、アメリカの景気後退は、2007年12月に始まって19ヵ月間つづき、2009年6月に脱却したと判断されている。グレート・リセッションは2007-2008年の金融危機と2007-2009年のアメリカのサブプライム住宅ローン危機と関連しており、市場経済で貴重な資産の不足をもたらし、世界経済での金融セクターの崩壊という結果を残した。

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