Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo : グアダルーペ・イダルゴ条約

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo in Spanish), officially titled the Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits and Settlement between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic, is the peace treaty signed on February 2, 1848, in the Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo (now a neighborhood of Mexico City) between the United States and Mexico that ended the Mexican–American War (1846–1848). The treaty came into force on July 4, 1848.

With the defeat of its army and the fall of its capital, Mexico entered into negotiations to end the war. The treaty called for the U.S. to pay US$15 million to Mexico and to pay off the claims of American citizens against Mexico up to US$5 million. It gave the United States the Rio Grande as a boundary for Texas, and gave the U.S. ownership of California and a large area comprising roughly half of New Mexico, most of Arizona, Nevada, and Utah, and parts of Wyoming and Colorado. Mexicans in those annexed areas had the choice of relocating to within Mexico’s new boundaries or receiving American citizenship with full civil rights.

The U.S. Senate advised and consented to ratification of the treaty by a vote of 38–14. The opponents of this treaty were led by the Whigs, who had opposed the war and rejected Manifest destiny in general, and rejected this expansion in particular. The amount of land gained by the United States from Mexico was increased as a result of the Gadsden Purchase of 1853, which ceded parts of present-day southern Arizona and New Mexico to the United States.

グアダルーペ・イダルゴ条約は、米墨戦争(1846年 – 1848年)を終結させた1848年5月の条約。この条約で、メキシコは 1,500 万ドルと引き換えに、アメリカ合衆国に広大な(136 万平方キロメートル)土地を譲渡した(メキシコ割譲地)。また、同時にメキシコの対米債務 325 万ドルを帳消しとした。



条約は、アメリカ合衆国側が外交官であるニコラス・トリスト、メキシコ側はルイス・G・クエバス、ベルナルド・コウト、ミゲル・アトリスタインの 3 名がそれぞれ全権として、メキシコシティの北方数キロにあるグアダルーペ・イダルゴ(Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo 、現在のグスタボ・A・マデロ)で1848年2月2日に調印され、3月10日にアメリカ上院、5月19日にメキシコ政府でそれぞれ批准された。1848年5月30日にはメキシコ中部ケレタロ州ケレタロ市で批准書の交換が行われた。


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